Mahabub Khan was born in a little village (Kerap) in the region of Rajasthan. Like his brother Sattar Khan, he belongs to an old family of traditional musicians, who passed on their art for generations from father to son. He interprets the traditional songs of his native region, which accompany the agricultural activities and the annual village festivals. He is a gifted singer of traditional compositions from Rajasthan, Bhajan and Qawwali songs and possesses a unique and powerful voice reminiscent of Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan's. He also plays instruments like tabla (percussion instrument) and harmonium (piano-accordion instrument). For more then ten years he travelled around the world (Europe, Africa, and Asia) to play on festivals with the traditional music and dance group Musafir. He also played with Gulabi Sapera (India), Thierry Robin (France), Lo'Jo Triban (France), Natasha Atlas (England), Transglobal Underground (England), Pieter-Jan De Smet (Belgium), Kiva (Canada), Fanà - Derwish dance - Haqqani Mevlevi (Italy), Ghalia Benali (Tunesia), Djamel (Algeria), Mastana - Qawwali du Rajasthan (France).
He started collaborating with Sidi Larbi Cherkaoui in 2010 on Babel(words).